Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de


Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de
(1698-1778)
   Born at Quebec, son of Philippe de Vaudreuil (q.v.). Entered the army at an early age, becoming ensign, 1708; lieutenant, 1712; and major, 1729. The following year gained the coveted honour of chevalier of the Order of St. Louis. Appointed governor of Three Rivers, 1733; and of Louisiana, 1742; governor of Canada, 1755. Continually at odds with Montcalm, and hampered him in his defence of Quebec. After the battle of the Plains retired with the army to Jacques Cartier, and took no part in the subsequent operations before Quebec. On his return to France arrested and thrown into the Bastile on charges connected with his government of Canada, but released after trial before the Châtelet de Paris.
   Index: WM Governor, his first interview with Montcalm, 28; considered the sending out of Montcalm unnecessary, 28; birth and personal qualities, 29; his inveterate hatred for Montcalm, 62; popular with Canadians, 63; his military views, 80, 81; activity of, 127; congratulates Lévis on victory of Montmorency, 144; prefers his advice to that of Montcalm, 145; thought Le Foulon (Wolfe's Cove) insufficiently guarded, 160; writes Bougainville that safety of colony is in his hands, 161; gives orders for disposition of troops along the heights, 162; his uneasiness about Le Foulon, 162; would not risk engagement between French and British fleets, 167; learns of landing of Wolfe's army, 189; begs Montcalm not to precipitate an engagement, 193; takes no part in battle, 201; prepared, according to Chevalier Johnstone, for immediate capitulation, 208; holds council of war, 211; decides on retreat to Jacques Cartier, 212; his letter to Lévis on loss of battle, 212; letter to Montcalm, 214; gives instructions respecting capitulation of Quebec, 214; his lack of energy, 215; promises assistance to Ramezay, 226; Quebec having fallen, he marches with Lévis to retake it, 241-242; maintains spies in Quebec, 243; congratulates Lévis on victory of Ste. Foy, 267. P Extent of his responsibility for defeat of Montcalm at Quebec, 143. BL His capitulation at Montreal in 1760, 1. Hd Last French governor of Canada, 36; Amherst's letter to, 38, 39.
   Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight with France.

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